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Treating Pain in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease: A Review of the Literature
Treating Pain In Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease: A Review Of the Literature
Considering data from in vitro and in vivo studies, cannabidiol CBD seems to be a promising candidate for the treatment of both somatic and psychiatric disorders. The aim of this review was to collect dose s , dosage schemes, efficacy and safety reports of CBD use in adults from clinical studies. A systematic search was performed in PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library for articles published in English between January 1, and October 25, The search terms used were related to cannabis and CBD in adults. We identified 25 studies patients; men and women , of which 22 studies were controlled clinical trials patients and three were observational designs 94 patients from five countries.
U.S. Food and Drug Administration
Pain management in patients with chronic liver disease poses unique challenges for clinicians. Many of the commonly used over-the-counter and prescription pain relievers like acetaminophen, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs NSAIDs , and opiates are metabolized through the liver. Adverse events from analgesics are all too common, potentially fatal, and often avoidable in patients with chronic liver disease, especially in those with cirrhosis or hepatitis. Unfortunately there currently are no definitive practice guidelines about treating the pain patient with chronic liver disease. This article examines some of the most commonly used analgesics, and the misconceptions as well as false impressions clinicians have regarding their usage in the chronic liver disease population.
MDMA popularly known as Ecstasy is a chemical with powerful neurological effects. It is also, according to reports, quite fun. But there is also concern that MDMA can cause serious brain damage. Retrospective studies of long term users show cognitive deficits not found in other drug users, while animal studies show brain damage and inconsistent cognitive deficits.